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商务英语培训之英文短文分享:《春天的承诺三》

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       《春天的承诺三》
       然而,并不是每一种迁徙动物都穿越全球。许多种类只做短途旅行,有时只有几英里,利用当地被称为小气候的条件。科罗拉多州的驼鹿从高地移到附近的山谷。阿拉斯加州的白头鹫寻找宽阔的水域。威斯康辛州丛林里的白尾鹿寻找面向南的斜坡,以便晨阳照在身上。
       其他动物都以自己的方式对付残酷的严冬。麝牛背对零度以下的风站立,慢慢地通过鼻孔呼吸,那可以在吸入肺部之前温暖一下过凉的北极空气。北极熊通过积累一层又一层的脂肪来保暖,皮毛下的脂肪达七英尺厚,每平方英寸有将近一万根毛。它们粗糙的肉趾在冰上可以防滑。
       有些动物能存活下来简直是奇迹。比如,山雀体重只有三分之一盎司,就像一个小不点儿,却在时速四十英里的凛冽寒风中苦苦度日。
       为了保持体内高温,山雀在冬天要比夏天多吃一倍的食物。它们白天几乎一直吃食积累脂肪,以度过寒夜。同时,它们冬天的羽毛要多百分之三十,可以抖松,存入一层热气。
       当天气变得很冷时,山雀便吧自己的身体降温到一种可控制的低温状态,提问比正常体温104华氏度少20多华氏度,从而降低能耗。只要有一丁点儿温暖,山雀就会从它们厚厚的灌木丛窝里钻出来,温暖地叫着吃着。
       许多冷血动物都将它们埋在土里,避免受冻,将心跳放慢到濒死的状态。树蛙其实已被冻僵,像冰块一样,春回大地时,才融化苏醒。这种蛙用葡萄糖(一种防止细胞遭到破坏的自然防冻剂)融化自己的血流,这种技巧也被束带蛇、昆虫和彩龟使用。
       Not all migratiions span the globe,however.Many species make short trips,sometimes only a few miles,to take advantage of local conditions known as microclimates.Elk in Colorado move from high country to nearby valleys.Bald eagles in Alaska seek open water.White-tailed deer in these Wisconsin woods search out a southfacing slope to catch the morning sun.
       Other creatures devise their own ways to deal with the harsh realities of winter.Musk ox stand with their backs to the belowzero wind,slowly breathing through nostrils that warm the supercooled arctic air before it is taken into the lungs.Polar bears stay warm by laying on layers of fat up to seven inches thick beneath a coat of fur with nearly10000hairs per square inch.Their rough footpads are skidresistant on the ice.
       The survival of some spevies seems nothing short of miraculous.The chickadee,for example,weighing just onethird of an ounce,seems a tiny spark of life to throw to the merey of frigid,40m.p.h.winds.
       To keep their intermal fumace stoked,chickadees eat twice as much food in winter as in summer.They feed almost constantly during daylight to accumu;ate a layer of fat that will burn slowly through the cold night.They also have 30-percent more feathers in the winter and can fluff them up,trapping a layer of warm air.
       When it gets very cold,chickadees lower themselves into a lind of controlled hypothermic state,dropping their body temperatures as much as 20 degrees below the normal 104,thereby slowing energy consumption.With any hint of warmth,chickadees emerge from their sheltered cavems of thick brush,chirping softly and eating.
       Many cold-blooded species bury themselves in the mud to avoid freezing,slowing themselves to near-death states.Wood frogs actually freeze solid,like lumps of ice,and thaw when Spring comes.The frog floods its bloodstream with glucose,a natural antifreeze prevents cell damage-a trick also used by garter snakes,insects and painted turtles.

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